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Program on Economic Inclusion

Labor Market Inclusion by State

Chart data last updated: March 22, 2021

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Four different gap-based measures examine the extent to which labor market disparities exist between Black populations and white populations for 35 states. The employment rate, labor force participation rate, and median real hourly earnings measures are produced by subtracting the Black estimate from the white estimate, while the unemployment-rate-based measure subtracts the white estimate from the Black estimate. For each measure, a positive value indicates Black achievement is lagging white achievement, suggesting that an economy is not inclusive—it disadvantages Black individuals on average.

It is important to note that although a positive value may indicate an economy is not inclusive, small sample sizes (particularly for Black populations) add uncertainty to this conclusion. To show the degree of uncertainty surrounding a point estimate, 95 percent confidence intervals are included. To avoid reporting misleading estimates, only states that have an average Black sample size greater than 500 from 2000 to 2020 are included; there are 35 states that meet this criterion. National estimates aggregate data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and all Black and white working-age (16 to 64 years of age) individuals are included in the sample. For more information about these data, see Economic Inclusion 2000–2020: Labor Market Trends by Race in the US and States.