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Economic Commentary

Nondeliverable Forwards: Can We Tell Where the Renminbi Is Headed?

Since the early 1990s, international banks have been offering non-deliverable forward (NDF) contracts to clients who need to hedge exposures in currencies of emerging-market economies. Many also use the exchange rate on these contracts as a best guess of where the emerging market currency is headed. The exchange rates on NDFs, however, likely embody a substantial risk premium that interferes with forecasting accuracy.

The views authors express in Economic Commentary are theirs and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The series editor is Tasia Hane. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. This paper and its data are subject to revision; please visit for updates.

Suggested Citation

Higgins, Patrick, and Owen F. Humpage. 2005. “Nondeliverable Forwards: Can We Tell Where the Renminbi Is Headed?” Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Economic Commentary 9/1/2005.