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Economic Commentary

Are the Great Lakes Cities Becoming Service Centers?

During the past 20 years, American business has restructured itself along many dimensions. While some industries have suffered a protracted decline, others have expanded, moved to new regions, or revamped their production processes. Two much-noted effects of this restructuring are the elimination of many manufacturing jobs nationwide and sluggish overall employment growth in the large cities bordering the Great Lakes.

The views authors express in Economic Commentary are theirs and not necessarily those of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The series editor is Tasia Hane. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. This paper and its data are subject to revision; please visit for updates.

Suggested Citation

Groshen, Erica, and Laura Robertson. 1993. “Are the Great Lakes Cities Becoming Service Centers?” Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Economic Commentary 6/1/1993.