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  • Beige Book: Economic activity in the Fourth District remains stable and solid

    Interviews with our Fourth District Beige Book contacts suggest that economic activity in the region has remained stable and solid since the prior reporting period. Find specifics on wages, prices, spending, and industries in report. Read More
  • An Uneven Recovery: Home Lending in the Fourth District by Race and Income

    Focusing on seven counties across Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky, our researchers used Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data to examine application and origination activity by income and race during the past 27 years (1990–2016). In a 13-year span preceding and following the Great Recession (2004–2016), three trends were consistent across all seven counties. Read More
  • Columbus—Labor Market Cruising at a Slightly Slower Pace

    The Columbus metro area’s economy is sturdy, with a low and relatively stable unemployment rate. Total employment grew at a slower rate recently than the metro area’s average pace in the current economic expansion, but the growth was broad-based across sectors. Read More
  • Toledo—Economy Rebounds

    Several measures—the number of jobs, the unemployment rate, output per person, and median personal income—indicate the economy of the Toledo metro area has essentially bounced back to where it was at the end of 2015. This represents a recovery from the 2017 closure of the Jeep Cherokee plant that reduced the number of jobs and increased the unemployment rate in the region. Read More
  • Opioids and the Labor Market

    This paper studies whether the opioid epidemic is causing workers to leave the labor force or whether a shock to the labor force like the Great Recession causes greater opioid abuse. We find evidence for the former but not for the latter. Individuals in areas with higher prescription rates are less likely to participate in the labor force. And the Great Recession had no effect on the share of people abusing opioids. Read More
  • A Long Ride to Work: Job Access and the Potential Impact of Ride-Hailing in the Pittsburgh Area

    Whether measured by proximity or commute time, data show that for the average transit rider, jobs are increasingly out of reach. Cleveland Fed researchers explored one solution for improving job access. Here’s your ticket to ride. Read More

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