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  • An Uneven Recovery: Home Lending in the Fourth District by Race and Income

    Focusing on seven counties across Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky, our researchers used Home Mortgage Disclosure Act data to examine application and origination activity by income and race during the past 27 years (1990–2016). In a 13-year span preceding and following the Great Recession (2004–2016), three trends were consistent across all seven counties. Read More
  • Columbus—Labor Market Cruising at a Slightly Slower Pace

    The Columbus metro area’s economy is sturdy, with a low and relatively stable unemployment rate. Total employment grew at a slower rate recently than the metro area’s average pace in the current economic expansion, but the growth was broad-based across sectors. Read More
  • Toledo—Economy Rebounds

    Several measures—the number of jobs, the unemployment rate, output per person, and median personal income—indicate the economy of the Toledo metro area has essentially bounced back to where it was at the end of 2015. This represents a recovery from the 2017 closure of the Jeep Cherokee plant that reduced the number of jobs and increased the unemployment rate in the region. Read More
  • The Opioid Epidemic and Its Effects: What We Know

    With drug overdoses being the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of 50, Cleveland Fed researchers examine the opioid epidemic’s effect on the region. Read their findings.
  • Labor Market Tightness across the United States since the Great Recession

    Though labor market statistics are often reported and discussed at the national level, conditions can vary quite a bit across individual states. We explore differences in these labor market conditions across US states before and after the Great Recession using a ratio of the number of unemployed workers to job vacancies. We show that the intensity of the adverse effects of the recession and the strength of the recovery varied geographically at all points in the process. We also demonstrate that wage growth is delayed until the ratio of unemployed workers to job vacancies returns to prerecession levels. Read More
  • Unemployment, Vacant Properties, Population Decline: Finding Solutions in Dayton

    Explore three ways community leaders in southern Ohio are responding to persistent challenges. Might they work in your region? Read More

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