The number of ATMs has grown phenomenally over the last few years, mostly in off-premise machines. Off-premise growth was already rising sharply in 1996, but it received a further boost that year when threatened antitrust actions caused Cirrus and Plus, the two largest networks, to drop their bans on surcharges. (ATM surcharges are fees paid by users who are not customers of the bank that owns the machine.)
Suggested citation: "ATM Use," Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, Economic Trends, no. 00-01, pp. 15-16, 01.01.2000.