Policy Summit on Housing, Human Capital, and Inequality
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Lena Andrews is a planning and development officer with ACTION-Housing, where she manages the construction and renovation of affordable and supportive housing throughout the Pittsburgh region. Before coming to ACTION-Housing, she worked for the Urban Redevelopment Authority where she spearheaded the Allegheny Riverfront Green Boulevard planning process, a federally funded planning initiative to create new bicycle, pedestrian, and transit infrastructure integrated with housing and riverfront reclamation along the Allegheny Riverfront. Andrews earned a BS in economics from Dartmouth College and an MS in public policy from Carnegie Mellon University.
Noelle Baldini joined the Community Development Studies and Education Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia in 2014. In her role as community engagement associate, she organizes outreach meetings and represents the Reserve Bank with Third District stakeholders to promote community development in low- and moderate-income communities. Her areas of focus include household financial stability, community development finance, impact investing, and healthy communities. Baldini has a BA in economics and philosophy from the Schreyer Honors College at Pennsylvania State University.
Malik G. Bankston is executive director of The Kingsley Association and has worked in the nonprofit health and human services sector for more than thirty years. As a longtime community and political activist, he has worked locally and nationally to organize efforts addressing a wide range of social, economic, cultural, and social issues. He serves on several boards, including Rights and Responsibilities; Pittsburgh Economic Industrialization Development, Inc.; East Liberty Development, Inc.; the Larimer Consensus Group; and Pittsburgh Urban Initiatives, LLC.
Jordana Barton is senior advisor in Community Development for the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, San Antonio Branch. Her focus areas include the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), community-development finance, financial education/capability, affordable housing, workforce development, healthy communities, and small-business development. Prior to working with the Federal Reserve, Barton served as vice president for Community Development Banking at Capital One Bank. Barton holds an MPA from Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
Nathaniel Baum-Snow is an associate professor of economics and urban studies at Brown University. His research investigates reasons for levels of and changes in the spatial organization of populations and economic activity in urban areas. He has evaluated the roles that various types of transportation infrastructure have played in generating changes in urban form in the United States and China. Other work investigates how racial interactions in school and low-income housing have influenced urban change at metropolitan-area and neighborhood spatial scales in the United States. Baum-Snow earned his PhD in economics from the University of Chicago.
Summary and Findings: We demonstrate a consistent pattern of gentrification in central neighborhoods of many metropolitan areas, beginning sometime between 1980 and 2000, with the most rapid gentrification occurring between 2000 and 2010. We investigate whether changes in the size demographic groups disproportionately located in central areas or changes in neighborhood choices of these demographic groups is driving these results. Our results indicate that population and SES status would have declined more rapidly in these areas had demand by the college educated, whites and higher income households not increased after 1980. Increases in the fraction of the population college educated explain most of the shifts in the racial composition of central area populations and a bit less than half of the change in education levels of these areas, with the rest explained by changing neighborhood choices by the college educated. Our joint examination of race and income yields strong evidence that income growth in these central neighborhoods has primarily been driven by increases in demand by higher income households to live there.
Implications: With the employment composition of downtown areas shifting toward being more oriented toward high skilled work, it makes sense that the skill composition of nearby residents is increasing. The consequences for incumbent residents of central cities is quite important. On the one hand, the increased demand for central neighborhoods by higher socioeconomic status households increases rents, representing a clear welfare loss for incumbent renters. On the other hand, there may be positive spillovers from having more college educated and wealthier neighbors. Our results provide some basis for evaluating the first dimension of welfare consequences of gentrification.
Josh Benton is executive director in Workforce Development at the Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, where he leads the Cabinet’s workforce efforts, including workforce project management, program and policy development, and oversight of training incentives available through the Bluegrass State Skills Corporation. Additionally, he provides leadership to the Kentucky Skills Network, the Commonwealth’s comprehensive workforce system. Benton holds a BA in political science from Cumberland College and an MPA from Kentucky State University.
Bonnie Blankenship is a senior policy analyst in the Community Development Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Working out of the Bank’s Cincinnati Branch, she conducts outreach activities and research and policy analysis on current and emerging community development issues. In addition, she provides information and technical assistance to financial institutions, community-based organizations, and government entities in the Fourth Federal Reserve District. She earned a BA in economics from the University of Cincinnati and an MA in humanities from Xavier University.
Scott Bricker, a vocal advocate for safe streets for bike riders and pedestrians, has been the executive director of Bike Pittsburgh since 2005. Bike Pittsburgh has been recognized nationally as one of North America’s strongest biking and walking advocacy organizations, winning “Advocacy Organization of the Year” in 2011 from the Alliance for Biking & Walking. Bricker also serves on the boards of directors for Pennsylvania Walks and Bikes, The Alliance for Biking and Walking, and the Center for PostNatural History. He earned a BS in public policy and management from Carnegie Mellon University.
Ryan Burke is a policy advisor with the White House’s National Economic Council, where she works primarily on job skills and opportunity and the intersection of technology and skill development. Previously, Burke was the director at Hope Street Group, an associate at McKinsey & Company, and chief of staff for McKinsey’s Global Social Sector Office focused on education and economic development. She has a BS in finance from the University of Virginia.
Jane Campbell is director of the Washington office of the National Development Council (NDC), working toward building public facilities and creating commercial redevelopment and low-income housing through public–private partnerships and creative use of federal, state, and local financing tools. Her efforts as senior advisor to Senator Cantwell on the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship focus on issues such as access to capital and women’s entrepreneurship. Campbell holds a BA in history from the University of Michigan and an MS in urban studies from Cleveland State University.
Rajeev Darolia is an assistant professor at the University of Missouri with appointments in the Truman School of Public Affairs and the College of Education. He is also a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and a policy research scholar at the Institute of Public Policy. His research interests include education policy and household finance, with recent projects focusing on higher education regulation, student borrowing, and government sponsored consumer credit programs. Darolia holds a PhD in public policy and public administration from George Washington University.
Sabina Deitrick is associate professor at the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs and director of the Urban and Regional Analysis Program at the University Center for Social and Urban Research at the University of Pittsburgh. Her research focuses on community and economic development and issues of transition and transformation in post-industrial cities and regions. She received her BA and MA from the University of Pennsylvania and her PhD in city and regional planning from the University of California, Berkeley.
Summary and Findings: Over fifty years ago economist Ben Chinitz in his famous piece comparing Pittsburgh to New York, Contrasts in Agglomeration, identified the lack of entrepreneurial spirit in communities tied to the steel industry: “The entrepreneurial supply curve is a function of certain traditions and elements of the social structure which are heavily influenced by the character of the area's historic specializations … An industry which is competitively organized … has more entrepreneurs ... than an industry which is organized along oligopolistic lines. My feeling is that you do not breed as many entrepreneurs per capita in families allied with steel (p. 284).” In the Monongahela Valley – Mon Valley -- in the Pittsburgh, PA, region, when the steel industry collapsed in the early 1980s, the region lost over 70,000 jobs in primary metals alone. Over the past thirty years, these river communities continued to struggle with their economic recovery and faced slow employment growth, limited commercial growth, little outside new investment, ongoing population decline, and rising housing vacancies in their continued weakened economy. How are new firms and entrepreneurs influencing the Mon Valley's economic development? We find that up to now, new firm development has been important in the region, but the Mon Valley still lacks the major dynamics of an “entrepreneurial ecosystem” necessary for growth in the former steel region.
Implications: The work of partners in this project has demonstrated the importance of educational and programmatic efforts targeting entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs in the Mon Valley communities. The implications are for continued and expanded efforts directed toward assisting these efforts, coupled with continued needed training for Mon Valley residents, who have lower than regional averages for educational attainment. Improving the skill and educational base of the existing population remains a major factor for economic development in the Mon Valley.
Lei Ding is an economic advisor in the Community Development Studies and Education Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. Ding's expertise includes affordable housing, mortgage finance, community and economic development, and housing policy. Prior to joining the Philadelphia Fed in 2013, Ding was an assistant professor in the Department of Urban Studies and Planning at Wayne State University. Ding holds a BS and an MA from Tsinghua University, as well as a PhD in public policy from George Mason University.
Jeffrey Dorsey is executive director at Union Project. His expertise in arts-related community development and nonprofit management has earned him broad recognition across various sectors in and around Pittsburgh. He has helped shape many of the East End’s most progressive community building initiatives, including managing the Penn Avenue Arts Initiative, co-founding the East End Partnership of Pittsburgh, directing Friendship Development Associates, and chairing the expansion of the Waldorf School of Pittsburgh. Dorsey holds a BFA from Carnegie Mellon University.
Jane A. Downing, a senior program officer at The Pittsburgh Foundation, is responsible for grantmaking in community and economic development with emphases on affordable housing, transportation and green infrastructure strategies, and upward mobility programs for entry-level workers. She currently serves on the Youth Policy Council for the Three Rivers Workforce Investment Board, the Allegheny County Homeless Advisory Board, and the board of Neighborhood Allies, a community development intermediary. Downing earned a BA in government from Bates College and an MURP from the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.
Ingrid Gould Ellen is the Paulette Goddard professor of urban policy and planning at New York University's Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service as well as faculty director of the university's Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. Her research centers on neighborhoods, housing, and residential segregation. Gould Ellen is author of Sharing America's Neighborhoods: The Prospects for Stable Racial Integration. She attended Harvard University, where she earned a BA in applied mathematics, an MPP, and a PhD in public policy.
Grant Ervin is chief resilience officer for the City of Pittsburgh. Prior to joining the city, he served as the regional director for 10,000 Friends of Pennsylvania, a statewide smart-growth and sustainable-development advocacy organization, and as public policy manager for Pittsburgh Community Reinvestment Group. Ervin graduated with a BA in history and political science from Washington & Jefferson College and an MPIA from the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.
Kyle Fee is a senior policy analyst for the Community Development team at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. In this role, he performs data analysis, conducts applied research, and writes reports, with a particular emphasis on policy implications for low- and moderate-income communities. His work focuses on economic development, regional economics, and economic geography. Fee holds a BS in economics and business administration from John Carroll University and an MUA from Loyola University, Chicago. He is pursuing his doctorate at the Maxine Goodman Levin College of Urban Affairs at Cleveland State University.
Will Fischer is a senior policy analyst at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, a national organization working on budget and policy issues affecting low- and moderate-income people. His work focuses on federal housing assistance programs, including Section 8 vouchers and public housing. Before coming to the Center in 2002, he was an analyst at Berkeley Policy Associates working on evaluations of state TANF programs and several US Department of Labor workforce development initiatives. Fischer holds an MPP in public policy from University of California Berkeley's Goldman School of Public Policy.
Bill Flanagan, chief corporate relations officer for the Allegheny Conference on Community Development and its affiliated organizations, guides the development of regional and organizational messaging strategy and supervises investor relations activities, including fundraising and membership development and programming. He serves on the boards of Leadership Pittsburgh, Inc. and Rivers of Steel National Heritage Area and on the Pittsburgh advisory board of the Science and Engineering Ambassadors. Flanagan holds a BS in speech from Northwestern University and an MA in journalism from the University of Missouri–Columbia.
Amy Glasmeier, professor of economic geography and regional planning, runs the lab on Regional Innovation and Spatial Analysis (LRISA) at MIT. Her research focuses on the spatial interactions of economic actors and structures including firms, industries, institutions, and the state in the provision of economic opportunity for communities and individuals. Her work investigates the role of access and the influence of locational accident, which encumbers human development. Glasmeier holds an MCP and a PhD in regional planning from UC Berkeley.
Erica L. Groshen is the 14th commissioner of labor statistics at the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the principal federal statistical agency responsible for measuring labor market activity, working conditions, and price changes in the economy. She has served as an economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, a visiting assistant professor of economics at Barnard College at Columbia University, and a visiting economist at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland. She earned a PhD in economics from Harvard University and a BS in economics and mathematics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Daniel Hartley is a research economist in the Research Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. He is primarily interested in urban/regional economics and labor economics. His current work focuses on crime, public housing, and neighborhood housing market dynamics .Hartley earned his PhD in economics from University of California, Berkeley.
Andy Haughwout is a senior vice president and head of the Microeconomic Studies Department in the Research and Statistics Group at the New York Federal Reserve Bank. In addition to his duties at the Bank, he is a scholar at the Penn Institute for Urban Research, a past chair of the North American Regional Science Council and the Federal Reserve System Committee on Regional Analysis, and an advisory board member for the Journal of Regional Science. He holds a BA from Swarthmore College and a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania.
Summary and Findings: Student borrowing is the only form of household debt to have grown persistently before, during and after the financial crisis and Great Recession. While average returns to higher education are strongly positive, this masks significant heterogeneity in the outcomes of human capital investments financed by student debt. Borrowers who left school during the Great Recession and those from lowe income areas have had particular difficulty repaying their student loans, and many have become delinquent, defaulted or failed to reduce their balances in any significant way since graduating.
Implications: Student debt should be treated with care: substantial debts that are not accompanied by increased income may lead to bad outcomes for borrowers. These effects are particuarly important during weak labor markets, and borrowers from poorer areas may be especially at risk of bad outcomes. More broadly, given these finndings it may be time to rethink the role of student debt in our educational finance system.
Christopher S. Hayter is an assistant professor at the Center for Organization Research and Design in the School of Public Affairs at Arizona State University School of Public Affairs. He is also affiliated with the ASU Center for Science, Technology, and Environmental Policy Studies (C-STEPS) and is a senior sustainability scholar with the Julie Ann Wrigley Global Institute of Sustainability. He specializes in entrepreneurship, technology policy, and the organization of higher education and science. Hayter holds a PhD in science policy and economics from George Washington University.
Summary and Findings: The paper finds that a robust literature exists that examines what we term the 'traditional linear model' of university technology transfer. However, we find that not only are other conceptualizations possible under current legal frameworks, the literature largely neglects the role of copyright within the university context entirely.
Implications: Future research is needed to understand the role of copyright in the dissemination and application of new knowledge created in research universities.
Richard C. Hinckley is president and chief executive officer of the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD). He has served education since 1970 in capacities of teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, college dean, consultant, and president of an education-services company. He is also co-author of The Career Pathways Effect.
Peter Hinrichs is a senior research economist in the Research Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. His main field of research is the economics of education, with additional interests in applied econometrics and labor, public, and health economics. Prior to joining the Cleveland Fed, Hinrichs was an assistant professor of public policy at Georgetown University. He holds a PhD in economics from MIT and a BA in economics and mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley.
Ernest E. Hogan is the executive director for the Pittsburgh Community Reinvestment Group (PCRG), where he relies on more than 27 years of experience as a community-development practitioner to advance neighborhood-driven economic growth. Through policy creation, advocacy, and education, Hogan is helping to change the community-development system in Pittsburgh. He is the chair of Pittsburgh’s Historic Review Commission and a former board member of both Friendship Development Associates and the Design Center of Pittsburgh.
John B. Horrigan is a senior researcher at the Pew Research Center, where he focuses on libraries, technology, and communities as well as open data and open government. Prior to rejoining the Pew Research Center in 2015, he served as research director for the development of the National Broadband Plan at the Federal Communications Commission. Horrigan holds a PhD in public policy from The University of Texas at Austin and a BA in economics and government from the University of Virginia.
Joshua Jennings is the founding director of the Global Impact STEM Academy in Springfield, Ohio. Prior to his role at Global Impact, Jennings was the director of career and technical education at Springfield–Clark Career and Technology Center and the agricultural education instructor and FFA advisor at Northeastern High School in Clark County, Ohio. He holds a BS in agriculture and an MA in workforce development and education from The Ohio State University.
Michael Jones is an assistant professor at the University of Cincinnati and the director of research at the University of Cincinnati Economics Center. His research interests include labor economics, public economics, and the economics of education. Previously, he was an emerging education policy scholar with the Thomas B. Fordham Institute and the American Enterprise Institute. Jones has received funding from the Mellon Foundation to organize a seminar series on the political economy of K-12 education reform. He earned his PhD and MA in economics from the University of Notre Dame and his MBA from the University of Cincinnati.
Robert Kahn, a pediatrician and child-health researcher, is currently a professor and associate chair of community health. He directs Cincinnati Children’s Hospital’s population health initiative and co-directs the Cincinnati Child Health-Law Partnership. His main interest lies at the intersection of poverty and child health, seeking to understand what leads to worse health among poor children and where we might intervene most effectively. Kahn attended Princeton University and Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and completed his residency and fellowship at Children’s Hospital in Boston. He earned an MPH from Harvard.
Heidi A. Kaplan is a senior community development analyst at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. She conducts research, monitors emerging issues, and briefs the Board’s leadership on labor-market issues that pertain to low- and moderate-income individuals and communities. Prior to joining the Board, Kaplan was a research advisor at the Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund. She holds a BA in economics from the University of California, Berkeley and an MCRP from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.
Hal Keller has been with Ohio Capital Corporation for Housing since its inception in 1989, first as director of development and then as president. Keller oversees all corporate policy and fiscal affairs, including securing corporate investors for Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) equity funds and coordinating efforts to develop housing projects receiving equity investment from the Ohio Equity Fund. Keller holds MAs in both public administration and social work from The Ohio State University and a BS in applied social science from Case Western Reserve University.
Grace A. Kilbane is the executive director of the Cleveland Cuyahoga County Workforce Investment Board and of OhioMeansJobs Cleveland-Cuyahoga County, where she serves at the local level to implement the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) and works with local leaders on workforce issues. Prior to her appointment, Grace served as a senior career executive with the US Department of Labor Employment & Training Administration (ETA) in many key roles for the agency. Grace holds an MA in urban studies and a JD from Cleveland State University.
Seung Kim, the program director of LISC's Family Income and Wealth Building unit, helps LISC offices throughout the country design and establish Financial Opportunity Centers. Prior to joining the national LISC staff, she worked as a consultant with LISC Chicago on its Centers for Working Families and with the national office on Financial Opportunity Centers. She holds a BS in economics from Northwestern University and an MBA from Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management.
Douglas Kinkoph is the associate administrator for the Office of Telecommunications and Information Applications (OTIA) at the US Department of Commerce. Prior to this role, he managed the OTIA team responsible for overseeing the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program’s broadband Infrastructure grants. His private-sector experience includes serving in senior regulatory and policy roles at XO Communications, Nextlink, and LCI. Kinkoph earned his MA in administration from Central Michigan University and his BS in telecommunication management from Ohio University.
Jeffrey Kling, associate director for economic analysis at the Congressional Budget Office, has conducted research on public housing, unemployment insurance, and other aspects of public policy in the United States. Previously, he was the Joseph A. Pechman senior fellow and deputy director of economic studies at the Brookings Institution, a faculty member at Princeton University, special assistant to the Secretary of Labor, and an assistant to the chief economist at the World Bank. He earned his PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his AB from Harvard University.
Blair Levin is a nonresident senior fellow with the Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution. He also serves as the executive director of Gig.U: The University Community Next Generation Innovation Project. Levin served as chief of staff to FCC Chairman Reed Hundt from 1993 to 1997. During that period he oversaw, among other matters, the implementation of the 1996 Telecommunications Reform Act and the commission's Internet initiative. He holds a BA in American studies from Yale University and a JD from Yale Law School.
Jeffrey Lin is an economic advisor and economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. He is primarily interested in urban and regional economics and the economics of technological change. His current research focuses on long-run persistence in the fortunes of cities and neighborhoods and the importance of geographic proximity for the diffusion of knowledge. Lin holds a PhD from the University of California, San Diego and a BS in economics and mathematical methods in the social sciences from Northwestern University.
Summary and Findings: Why do inventors tend to cluster in dense, costly areas? We present new evidence of localized knowledge spillovers using a novel database of patent interferences—instances of simultaneous, identical invention by multiple, independent parties. Interfering inventors are more likely to be co-located versus (i) other inventors working in the same field and at the same time, and even (ii) other inventors linked by a patent citation. Institutional details from the interference process rule out other likely explanations for the clustering of interfering inventors, such as copying. Our evidence suggests that although many firms might want to limit spillovers of proprietary knowledge, inventors may benefit from localized spillovers of tacit, non-proprietary knowledge inputs.
Implications: Our evidence furthers an understanding of the factors influencing the geographic clustering of inventive activity.
Charles F. Manski has been Board of Trustees Professor in Economics at Northwestern University since 1997. His research spans econometrics, judgment and decision, and analysis of public policy. Author of numerous books and articles, including Public Policy in an Uncertain World published by Harvard University Press in 2013, Manski earned his BS and PhD in economics from MIT.
Summary and Findings: Federal statistical agencies in the United States and analogous agencies elsewhere commonly report official economic statistics as point estimates, without accompanying measures of error. Users of the statistics may incorrectly view them as error-free or may incorrectly conjecture error magnitudes. This paper discusses strategies to mitigate misinterpretation of official statistics by communicating uncertainty to the public. Sampling error can be measured using established statistical principles. The challenge is to satisfactorily measure the various forms of nonsampling error. I find it useful to distinguish transitory statistical uncertainty, permanent statistical uncertainty, and conceptual uncertainty. I illustrate how each arises as the Bureau of Economic Analysis periodically revises GDP estimates, the Census Bureau generates household income statistics from surveys with nonresponse, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics seasonally adjusts employment statistics.
Breen Masciotra is communications coordinator for Port Authority of Allegheny County. She is responsible for managing relationships with stakeholder groups and also works on public relations strategy, policy formation, and transit-oriented development. Prior to joining Port Authority, Masciotra spent ten years working for and with nonprofit community organizations, including as a transit advocate. She has a BA in architecture from Washington University in St. Louis and an MPA from the University of Pittsburgh.
Beth McConnell is the policy director for the Philadelphia Association of Community Development Corporations, where she works to advance policies that create a more supportive environment for neighborhood revitalization and equitable development. She served as co-chair of the board of directors of PhillyCAM, Philadelphia’s public access station and community media center, until March 2015, and she sits on the board of directors of PennEnvironment and PennPIRG. McConnell received her education at the University of Pennsylvania.
David Megenhardt has been the executive director of the Cleveland-based United Labor Agency since 1998. He has 25 years of workforce development experience and is the primary architect of a demand-driven model currently utilized for four Ohio workforce areas. He has been a board member of the Workforce Investment Board, Area 3 and the Governor’s Workforce Policy Board, among several far-ranging nonprofit boards and government commissions. Megenhardt holds an MA in English from Case Western Reserve University and a BA in English from Kent State University.
Loretta J. Mester is president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. She participates in the formulation of US monetary policy and oversees 950 employees in Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Pittsburgh. Her areas of research expertise include the organizational structure and productive efficiency of financial institutions, financial intermediation and regulation, agency problems in credit markets, credit card pricing, central bank governance, and inflation. Mester holds a BA in mathematics and economics from Barnard College of Columbia University as well as MA and PhD degrees in economics from Princeton University.
Marimba Milliones is president and chief executive officer of the Hill Community Development Corporation in Pittsburgh’s historic Hill District neighborhood. She advocates for and utilizes intentional planning and development practices that honor people, place, culture, and market. Milliones recently served on the transition team for Pennsylvania Governor Tom Wolf’s Department of Community and Economic Development, and she is a member of Leadership Pittsburgh XXXI.
Mark Minnerly serves as the director of real estate and as project partner at The Mosites Company. Prior to his work with The Mosites Company, he was the director of Friendship Development Associates, a community-development corporation focusing on planning, banking advocacy, and real estate development. He also serves as adjunct faculty at Carnegie Mellon University, teaching real estate design and development, and was a member of the City of Pittsburgh Design Review Committee and on the board of directors of the Community Design Center of Pittsburgh. Minnerly holds a BArch from Cornell University.
Judy Mortrude directs a 10-state alliance of education, workforce development, and human service providers at the Alliance for Quality Career Pathways at the Center for Law and Social Policy. She has over 30 years' experience developing, delivering, and managing education projects for workforce development, particularly with low-literacy and high-barrier populations. Mortrude holds an MA in English language and literature/letters from DePaul University and a license in adult and continuing education and teaching from the University of Minnesota Twin Cities.
Mary Nally has served as director for Community Food Initiatives since April 2012. She also serves on the Athens Food Policy Council, the Athens Healthy Community Coalition, the Hocking·Athens·Perry Community Action Board of Directors, and the SE Ohio Foodbank Advisory Council. Social justice issues have been the driving force for her career; for ten years she worked with the homeless and persons with chemical dependency and brain disorders before returning to Ohio to focus on food-justice issues. Nally holds an MS in environmental studies from Ohio University in addition to a BASW.
Carol Redmond Naughton is the senior vice president of Purpose Built Communities, LLC, a nonprofit that works with local leaders to plan and implement neighborhood revitalizations designed to break the cycle of poverty while creating healthy and sustainable communities. Prior to joining Purpose Built Communities, Naughton served for seven years as executive director of the neighborhood-focused East Lake Foundation, helping families break the cycle of poverty. She is a graduate of the Emory University School of Law and graduated with honors from Colgate University.
Brendan O'Flaherty is professor of economics at Columbia University. His research is mainly in urban economics, especially homelessness, housing, and crime, with secondary interests in land use, local governments and taxes, and local economic development. His latest book The Economics of Race in the United States was published by Harvard University Press in June 2015. O’Flaherty holds a PhD from Harvard University.
Stefani Pashman is chief executive officer of the Pittsburgh-based Three Rivers Workforce Investment Board (3RWIB), where she leads the public workforce development system for the City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County. Prior to working with 3RWIB, Pashman worked in the healthcare field in policy and strategy. Most recently, she served in the Rendell Administration at the PA Department of Public Welfare as director of policy and as special assistant to the secretary. Pashman holds an MBA and an MHA from the University of Michigan and a BA from Washington University in St. Louis.
Bill Peduto, mayor of the City of Pittsburgh, establishes community-based development plans and encourages investment into niche industries. He has hands-on experience in building a new Pittsburgh, having also worked for 19 years on the Pittsburgh City Council, both as a staffer and as a councilmember representing District 8. Peduto holds a BA in political science from Penn State University and an MPPM from the University of Pittsburgh.
Kendall Pelling is director of land recycling at Pittsburgh’s East Liberty Development, Inc., where he leads the planning and implementation of a comprehensive residential development strategy for the distressed urban neighborhood of East Liberty. This process has included the acquisition of vacant abandoned properties as well as interventions in the foreclosure market and substandard rental housing market. He also serves on numerous taskforces at the local and state levels. Kendall earned an MPM from Carnegie Mellon University and a BPA from the University of Southern California.
Gregg M. Perelman is the principal and chief executive officer of Walnut Capital Partners. A hands-on developer, he often supervises construction and renovation projects in the field. In addition to development, Perelman also jointly oversees the operations of Walnut Capital Management, the property management arm of Walnut Capital. Prior to founding Walnut Capital Partners, he was president and chief executive officer of a nationwide specialty pharmacy. Perelman earned a BS from the University of Pittsburgh.
Eve Picker is founder and chief executive offer of cityLAB, an economic-development nonprofit in Pittsburgh focusing on city-wide revitalization issues. She has a diverse background as an architect, city planner, urban designer, real estate developer, economic-development strategist, publisher, and co-founder of a public forum for urban issues. Picker earned a BSc and a BArch from University of New South Wales and an MArch from Columbia University.
Josh Pinkston is an assistant professor of economics at the University of Louisville. His research interests include the economics of labor markets and health, including asymmetric employer learning and statistical discrimination. His more recent work includes studies of obesity and the relationship between local alcohol laws and illegal drugs. Previously, Pinkston worked as a research economist in the Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics at the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and taught at Johns Hopkins University. He holds a PhD in economics from Northwestern University and a BA from Auburn University.
Jasmine N. Hall Ratliff is a program officer at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Her work includes managing projects that focus on preventing childhood obesity through environmental and policy change and that bridge community development and health. She is chair of the Emerging Practitioners in Philanthropy Board of Advisors and a member of the Association of Black Foundation Executives. Ratliff earned an MHA from the Saint Louis University School of Public Health and a BA from the University of Virginia.
Todd E. Reidbord is principal and president of Walnut Capital Partners. In his current position, Reidbord jointly oversees the operations and staff of Walnut Capital Management that coordinates all aspects of development, management, and brokerage services. His main focus is to handle the numerous investor and lender relationships involved in Walnut's owned and managed properties. Reidbord earned his BS in economics from The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and his JD from the University of Pittsburgh.
Francisca G.-C. Richter is a research assistant professor at the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences at Case Western Reserve University. Prior to coming to Case, she was a research economist in Community Development at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Richter’s research focuses on the analysis of social interventions and the environments in which they operate. Her recent work centers on low-income housing programs, mobility in low-income neighborhoods, and neighborhood effects. Richter holds a PhD in agricultural economics and an MS in statistics from Oklahoma State University.
Summary and Findings: We characterize Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) use in Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units and explore whether the subsidy overlap responds to needs unmet by the HCV program alone. We present a subsidy allocation model allowing for complementarity of tenant-based and place-based subsidies to guide our analysis. Findings for Ohio in 2011 suggest vouchers tied to LIHTC units are more likely allocated to very poor households with special needs. We also find that HCV users who freely choose to redeem their voucher in a LIHTC unit make up a somewhat larger share of LIHTC households in tighter or less affordable markets. There is little evidence that using both programs in concert enables access to better neighborhoods: households across both programs live in neighborhoods that tend to have above 20% poverty rates, with HCV-LIHTC users actually living in higher poverty neighborhoods in the most urban Ohio counties when compared to the HCV population as a whole.
Implications: While, to the extent of our knowledge, there is not an explicit coordination of HCV and LIHTC programs at the federal level, the number of households using vouchers in units produced by place-based programs is not insignificant. Rather than studying each program independently of each other, this paper provides a framework under which the level of potential complementarity of both policies can be analyzed and discussed. Evidence from Ohio suggests that these programs exhibit some degree of complementarity, particularly, when serving very poor households and those considered hard to house.
Gerry Roll is executive director of the Foundation for Appalachian Kentucky, a community foundation committed to establishing an endowment in southeastern Kentucky based on the principles of rural development philanthropy. Her work in eastern Kentucky has been focused on equity in housing, early childhood education, and health care. Under Roll's leadership, the Community Foundation of Hazard and Perry County, Inc. established a regional community housing development organization, a quality-rated early care and education system, and a full continuum of other support services for working families. She earned her BLS from Barry University.
Jacob H. Rooksby is assistant professor of law at Duquesne University School of Law in Pittsburgh, where he currently teaches courses in torts, intellectual property (IP) subjects, law and higher education, corporate governance, and social media and the law. His primary scholarship concerns the impact of IP law and policy on higher education. Prior to completing a PhD and engaging his current position at Duquesne, he was an associate at McGuireWoods LLP, a law practice in Richmond, Virginia. He holds a JD, MEd, and PhD from the University of Virginia.
Robert Rubinstein is the acting executive director at Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh and has been revitalizing communities, supporting housing and economic development, and helping to generate public tax revenue since 1988. Prior to engaging his current position, Rubinstein served in a number of roles at the URA, including director of the economic development department. He also serves on the governing board of Pittsburgh Urban Initiatives. Rubinstein holds a BS in engineering from the University of Michigan and an MBA from Carnegie Mellon University’s Tepper School of Business.
Paul Schreffler joined Pierpont Community & Technical College in 2004 and was named vice president for workforce development in 2011. He also serves as the dean of the School of Workforce Development, integrating the college’s credit and noncredit technical programs in the energy and manufacturing sectors. His work at Pierpont has been primarily focused as a scholar/practitioner in workforce education and economic development initiatives. Schreffler holds an MS in adult and technical education from Marshall University and a DM from the University of Maryland University College.
Chris Schildt, senior associate at PolicyLink, conducts research on equitable economic growth strategies. She has authored several reports on best practices for advancing equity in job creation, entrepreneurship, and workforce development. Previously, Schildt worked with the UC Berkeley Labor Center to develop a series of job creation policy briefs addressing local, regional, and statewide economic development strategies. She has also led community coalitions to promote equitable and sustainable transit-oriented development in the San Francisco Bay Area. She holds a BA in political science and peace and conflict studies and an MCP from the University of California, Berkeley.
Jenny Schuetz is an economist in the Division of Consumer and Community Affairs of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Her main research interests are urban economics, real estate, and housing policy. She has written numerous journal articles related to land-use regulation, urban retail patterns, and neighborhood change. Schuetz earned a PhD in public policy from Harvard University, an MCP from M.I.T., and a BA in economics and political and social thought from the University of Virginia.
William (Skip) Schwab is the deputy director for Pittsburgh's East Liberty Development, Inc. (ELDI), where he works with project investments, partner relationships, and ELDI's investment strategy. He has over thirty years of community development experience through his work as program director at the Local Initiative Support Corporation, director of real estate at North Side Civic Development Council, and assistant to the director of housing at the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh. Schwab earned a BLS from Bowling Green State University and an MPA from the University of Pittsburgh.
Mark Schweitzer is senior vice president of External Outreach and Regional Analytics at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. His research has focused on the macroeconomic impact of labor market developments and the identification of factors contributing to regional economic growth. Schweitzer holds an MA and a PhD in economics from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Mary Snow is program manager at Rural Support Partners (RSP), where she provides management, coordination, and evaluation support to sustainable economic development projects throughout rural Appalachia, including the Appalachia Funders Network, Kate B. Reynolds Charitable Trust’s Healthy Places NC initiative, the Carolina Textile District, the Appalachian Transition Fellowship Program, and the Deep South Community Agriculture Network. Snow holds an MA in human rights and cultural diversity from the University of Essex in England and a BA in mass communication from the University of North Carolina at Asheville.
Deb Socia is the executive director of Next Century Cities, a Washington DC-based initiative that strives to support community leaders across the country as they seek to ensure that all have access to fast, affordable, and reliable Internet. Prior to her work with technology issues, she spent 32 years as an educator and administrator and was the founding principal of the Lilla G. Frederick Middle School, a Boston public school where she led the one-to-one laptop initiative. Socia holds an MA in education, curriculum, and instruction from Lesley University.
Scot Spencer is associate director for advocacy and influence for The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Previously, he was manager of Baltimore Relations at Casey, where the Foundation’s work focuses on the East Baltimore revitalization effort to strengthen both community and economic development in a historic working-class neighborhood. He currently chairs the board of Smart Growth America and co-chairs the Baltimore regional Sustainable Communities Initiative steering committee. Spencer earned a BS in building science and architecture and an MA in urban and environmental studies from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Rob Stephany is the Heinz Endowments’ director of Community and Economic Development. Prior to joining Heinz, he served as executive director of the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh. Stephany has participated in several partnerships of private and government organizations to improve Pittsburgh’s neighborhoods while ensuring that existing stakeholders remain beneficiaries in the process. He earned a BS in urban studies from the University of Pittsburgh.
Kim Barber Tieman is the health and human service program officer for the Claude Worthington Benedum Foundation. She has a background in community development, program development and management, grant writing, grants management, and training. Prior to her service with the Benedum Foundation, Tieman served as an adjunct faculty member for the West Virginia University School of Social Work Charleston program for 18 years, where she taught classes in nonprofit management, grant writing and finance, supervision, and social welfare policy. Tieman holds an MSW from West Virginia University.
Jason Tigano is the director of real estate development at Pittsburgh's Economic Development South (EDS), where he works directly with the executive and deputy directors to provide managerial and tactical strategic support for all ongoing and planned real estate development projects. Prior to joining EDS, Tigano worked as the public and legislative affairs manager for the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh. He currently serves on several boards of directors for local non-profit organizations. Tigano holds an MA in social and public policy and a BA in history from Duquesne University.
Sandra Tormoen is assistant vice president and community affairs officer for the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. She is responsible for leading community development, research, and publications programs focusing on access to credit and development issues in low- and moderate-income communities across Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Washington DC, and most of West Virginia. Tormoen earned a BS in psychology, mathematics, and computer science from the University of Alabama and a secondary education certification from James Madison University.
Lesley J. Turner is assistant professor of economics at the University of Maryland, faculty research fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and faculty associate of the Maryland Population Research Center. Her research applies theory and methods from labor and public economics to topics in the economics of education, and broadly considers the role government should play in providing and financing education. Turner earned her BA and MPP from the University of Michigan and her PhD from Columbia University.
Guhan Venkatu is vice president and senior regional officer at the Pittsburgh Branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. As the senior official of the Pittsburgh Branch, he manages relationships with key stakeholders in the area and is responsible for monitoring the region’s economic environment. Venkatu’s recent economic research focuses on inflation and inflation expectations, housing and household finance, and factors related to regional economic growth. He earned his MECO from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio.
Jeremy Waldrup is president and chief executive officer of Pittsburgh Downtown Partnership (PDP). Prior to joining the PDP, Waldrup worked to support economic development initiatives with the City of New York, serving as assistant commissioner of district development for the Department of Small Business Services. He has also worked in business support and community development, having worked for the South Bronx Overall Economic Development Corporation and at Charlotte Center City Partners. Waldrup received an MPA from the University of Colorado and a BA in economics from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
Bruce A. Weinberg, a professor of economics at The Ohio State University, also serves as a research associate at both the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, MA, and the Institute for the Study of Labor in Bonn, Germany. His work on science and innovation shows how creativity varies over the lifecycle and how an individual’s own creativity is affected by the presence of other important innovators. He has held visiting positions at Stanford, Harvard, and Princeton Universities and at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Weinberg earned his PhD from the University of Chicago.