Issue #23 | March 26, 2019
Recently, from the Cleveland Fed
President Mester: Diverse views lead to better policy decisions
Though economics is a popular major at US colleges and universities, the field lags in attracting women and minorities. At the Second Annual Women in Economics Symposium, President Loretta J. Mester discussed the state of diversity in economics, explained why diversity matters, and offered four ways to increase diversity in the field. Inclusive behavior can begin with a nudge: Read how.
Want to close the wealth gap? Focus on income
Economists have long studied the reasons why blacks, on average, have considerably less wealth than whites. New research from the Cleveland Fed explores this troubling issue and finds that—contrary to earlier studies—the disparity in income between the two groups is the most significant driver maintaining the wealth gap. Read how income disparities interact with other factors over time to maintain the racial wealth gap.
A step toward limiting lead exposure
Two recent studies from Case Western Reserve University’s Center on Urban Poverty and Community Development show that lead poisoning is still a problem with far-reaching impacts on children’s health and life outcomes. In a recent blog post, a member of the Cleveland Fed’s Community Development team describes the studies’ findings and the formation by Cleveland city officials of a new framework to limit lead exposure in the home. See the blog post.
Ideas for improving urban transit
For many cities, finding transportation solutions that increase both access to jobs and opportunities for economic mobility is a complex task. The Cleveland Fed’s Community Development team highlights ideas shared during the 2018 Rail~Volution conference in Pittsburgh for increasing ridership and access to transit. Details (and recent transit research) here.
Campus contemplations: Who do colleges consider comparable?
A Cleveland Fed researcher examines how colleges respond when they are asked for a list of comparable institutions but aren’t given specific criteria for comparing. Do they compare themselves to institutions they aspire to be like or to institutions to which they compare favorably, and why does their choice of peer groups matter? Find out.
Do states have enough in their unemployment insurance trust funds to cover workers’ unemployment claims during the next recession?
For the four states in our District (Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia), the short answer to that question is probably not.
The metric used by the Labor Department to gauge a state’s preparedness is the ratio of a state’s current reserve funds to its average historical needs during downturns. Unfortunately, none of our four states meets the Labor Department’s minimum level of funding. In fact, none of them even comes close. This is why policymakers across our District have been scrambling during the past few years to try to shore up their programs. This is a formidable task made more difficult in the wake of the Great Recession, when each of our District states’ unemployment insurance trust funds fell into default.
What does that mean for unemployed workers? States are statutorily bound to continue paying benefits to workers even if the states don’t have the revenues on hand to do so. When that happens, states borrow money from the federal government, but those loans come with a twofold cost: interest payments and higher taxes on employers. For example, between 2012 and 2016, when Ohio owed money to the federal government, the state paid nearly $260 million in interest, and employers in Ohio paid higher unemployment insurance taxes than they would have otherwise.
Policymakers face this constant tension to match revenues, which come in through these taxes on employers, with the money paid to unemployed workers. On the one hand, states want to keep taxes low in order to encourage hiring, while on the other, they want to provide benefits to unemployed workers to help them weather tough economic times and to minimize unemployment’s overall impact on the state’s economy.
The fact that states don’t currently meet the minimum preparedness standard suggests that policymakers have been unable to find the right balance of revenues and payments. Right now it is likely that unemployment insurance trust funds in our District states would come under substantial duress during the next economic recession, even if it is a mild one.
The upshot here is that the recent focus on shoring up unemployment insurance trust funds, evidenced by the fast and furious introduction of bills in various states’ legislatures, is certainly warranted. The current economic expansion is nearing its 10th anniversary, and while expansions don’t die of old age, they all do ultimately end.
serves as the Cleveland Fed’s senior official in the Cincinnati region, which includes southwestern Ohio and eastern Kentucky. He is responsible for managing relationships with regional stakeholders, monitoring the region’s economic environment, and conducting economic research and analysis. Rick manages the Bank’s relationship with the board of directors of the Cincinnati Branch and with Business Advisory Councils in Cincinnati, Dayton, and Lexington.
Graphic of the Month
What bridge on the Ohio River connects Covington, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Ohio?
The Roebling Suspension Bridge, which opened in 1866, accommodates pedestrian and vehicular traffic between the two states. In June 2019, Cincinnati, pictured in the background, will serve for the first time as host city for the Cleveland Fed’s Policy Summit. The theme of Policy Summit 2019 is connecting people and places to opportunity; sessions will focus on inclusive economic growth, investing in health, and transit, among other topics.
On the Calendar
May 9–10, 2019
2019 Federal Reserve System Community Development Research Conference (Washington DC)
June 19–21, 2019
Policy Summit 2019: Connecting People & Places to Opportunity (Cincinnati, OH)
From around the Federal Reserve System
Financial fables await
Birds of a feather can be found flocking together in the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City’s Financial Fables series. Students from preschool through fifth grade can join Percy Peacock, Olivia Owl, Oscar Ostrich, and Penny Pigeon as they discover ways to be financially responsible. Each story has family activities, teacher resources, and two modes for kids: “read to me” and “read to myself.”
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