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Other Related Work

  • CRA, Racism & the Federal Reserve: A Midwest Perspective


    Emily Garr Pacetti

    The Community Reinvestment Act is up for its first significant revision in 25 years. It’s important we optimize this tool to address systemic disinvestment in lower-income and minority communities. Read More

  • The CRA Is Important for Underserved Communities, and Your Input Can Help Modernize It


    Susan Schaaf

    The Fed is seeking to modernize the Community Reinvestment Act in a way that significantly expands financial inclusion, and you can have a say in how it’s done. Read More

  • Landlords and Access to Opportunity


    Dionissi Aliprantis Hal Martin David Phillips

    Landlords in high-opportunity neighborhoods screen out tenants using vouchers. In our correspondence experiment, signaling voucher status cuts landlord responses in half. This voucher penalty increases with posted rent and varies little with signals of tenant quality and race. We repeat the experiment after a policy change and test how landlords respond to raising voucher payment limits by $450 per month in high-rent neighborhoods. Most landlords do not change their screening behavior; those who do respond are few and operate at small scale. Our results suggest a successful, systematic policy of moving to opportunity would require more direct engagement with landlords. Read More

  • Opioids and the Labor Market


    Dionissi Aliprantis Kyle Fee Mark E Schweitzer

    This paper studies the relationship between local opioid prescription rates and labor market outcomes for prime-age men and women between 2006 and 2016. We estimate the relationship at the most disaggregated level feasible in the American Community Survey in order to provide estimates that include rural areas that have, in some cases, seen particularly high prescription rates. Given the limited time period, it is particularly important to account for geographic variation in both short-term and long-term economic conditions. We estimate three panel models to control for evolving local economic conditions: a difference-in-differences specification, a specification with specific controls for economic conditions, and a model that focuses on a comparison group of place with similar performance in 2000. These modelling approaches find a range of statistically significant and economically substantial results for both prime-age men and women. For example, we find that a 10 percent higher local prescription rate is associated with a decrease in the prime-age labor force participation rate of between 0.15 and 0.47 percentage points for men and between 0.15 and 0.19 percentage points for women, depending on the control strategy. We also estimate effects for narrower demographic groups and find substantially larger estimates for some groups, notably for white and minority men with less than a BA. We also present evidence on reverse causality. We show that a short-term unemployment shock did not increase the share of people misusing prescription opioids and that prescription levels vary substantially within quintiles of longer-term labor market performance. Our estimates are generally robust to estimation within those quintiles of 2000 labor market performance. These results argue against theories of reverse causation that rely on prescriptions rates being higher in labor markets that were already weaker. Read More

  • A Long Ride to Work: Job Access and the Potential Impact of Ride-Hailing in the Pittsburgh Area


    Brett Barkley Emily Garr Pacetti Layisha Bailey

    Whether measured by proximity or commute time, data show that for the average transit rider, jobs are increasingly out of reach. Cleveland Fed researchers explored one solution for improving job access. Here’s your ticket to ride. Read More

  • The Opioid Epidemic and Its Effects: A Perspective on What We Know from the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland


    Kyle Fee

    Drug overdoses are now the leading cause of death for Americans under 50. In the Fourth District states of Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, opioid overdose deaths are occurring at rates that exceed the 2016 national average of 13.2 deaths per 100,000 people. Read More

  • Trouble finding workers? The answer may be transit.


    Emily Garr Pacetti

    In the latest entry in their Notes from the Field blog, the Community Development Department discusses job access—in this case, how people get to work. The problem is a persistent one for low-income workers across the country and was highlighted during a recent trip to Dayton, Ohio. Read More

  • Broadband and High-speed Internet Access in the Fourth District


    Shruthi Arvind Kyle Fee

    This report documents the availability of high-speed internet access in the Fourth Federal Reserve District. While our analysis clearly shows there is limited broadband access in rural parts of the Fourth District, it shows that urban low- and moderate-income (LMI) areas also have limited access. Read More

  • Lead Poisoning and the Children of Cuyahoga County


    Lisa Nelson

    Lead poisoning has been a public health concern for decades. And water with high lead levels is only part of the problem. Read More