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Mark S. Sniderman |

Executive Vice President and Chief Policy Officer

Mark S. Sniderman

Mark Sniderman is executive vice president and chief policy officer at the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. He is responsible for guiding the Bank’s economic research and community development efforts.

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Economic Trends

Living in a World of Contingency

Mark S. Sniderman

“I can see ... only one safe rule for the historian: that he should recognize in the development of human destinies the play of the contingent and the unforeseen.”
——H.A.L. (Herbert Albert Laurens) Fisher (1865–1940), British historian and politician, preface to History of Europe, 1935.

We are well into what is now being called The Financial Turmoil of 2007, still without fully understanding how broad and deep the turmoil will be and without a clue to how it will end. We wish it would fade, as Wordsworth said, “…into the light of common day.” But wishing won’t make it so. We all need to accept the situation for what it is—one of many contingencies. We can estimate, but we don’t really know.

What don’t we know?

Here is an image that sums it up pretty well: In describing the time when quantum physics replaced classical Newtonian physics, the physicist Heinz Pagels said, “The world changed from having the determinism of a clock to having the contingency of a pinball machine.” (The Cosmic Code, 1982)

Policymakers clearly recognize that they are living in a far more uncertain world than they are used to; certainly the press statements and speeches of Federal Reserve officials have underscored this point. Heightened uncertainty does not mean, of course, that what can go wrong, will. In fact, it is probably human nature, in stressful times, to overestimate the likelihood of worsening outcomes, just as it is our habit to overestimate the likelihood of continued good outcomes in boom times.

In times such as these, it is natural for everyone affected by the financial turmoil to second-guess their own thoughts and decisions because the systems we are dealing with are so complex. What to do? As the British biologist Thomas Henry Huxley put it, “Patience and tenacity of purpose are worth more than twice their weight of cleverness.”